The M113 is a fully tracked armored personnel carrier that was developed by Food Machinery Corp (FMC). The M113 armored personnel carrier was first used by the United States Army’s mechanized infantry units in Vietnam in April 1962 earning the nickname ‘Green Dragon’ by the Viet Cong as it was used to break through the thick jungle to attack and overrun enemy positions. The M113 introduced new aluminum armor that made the vehicle much lighter than earlier armored vehicles; it was thick enough to protect the crew and passengers against small arms fire but light enough that the vehicle was air transportable and moderately amphibious. Besides being a troop carrier it was widely used for support roles such as armored ambulance, mortar carrier, engineer vehicle, command vehicle, etc. The M113 is one of the most widely spread armored vehicles of all times.
The M113 APC arrived in Israel in 1971 and used widely in the 1973 Yom Kippur War. Due to the original thin layer of armor Israel Military Industries (IMI) developed a spaced armor method named Vizatana which although improving a bit the survivability of the vehicle it made it heavier and less maneuverable. Although having additional armor, Israeli soldiers named the M113 Zippos because of the vehicles dendancy to light on fire when hit by heavy caliber weapons. The M113A series has an improved diesel engine with an improved configuration, cooling and suspension system and additional armor. The inability of the M113 to protect soldiers for IED’s, RPG’s, and heavy caliber ammunition had led the IDF to gradually discontinue the use of the M113 APC and replace it with the Nagmachon, Nakpadon, Achzarit, Puma and the recent Namer.